Part 1.

Grasses and Sedges:The first one is sedges and the second one is grasses. It was easy to distinguish each other because of the feature of the leaf. The grasses have a long and narrow with parral formation of the vein. However, many seeds coats are found in sedges.

Invasive Plants: Multiflora Rose and Amur Honeysuckle is an invasive plant in Ohio. Multiflora Rosa is from Korea and Japan. This was introduced in 1866 as rootstock for ornamental roses. Multiflora rose forms impenetrable thickets that exclude native plant species and it can change the composition of the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. Amur Honeysuckle is from Korea, Japan and Russia. This plant was imported as ornamental into New York in 1898. It has been widely planted for wildlife cover and soil erosion control. However, they prevent the re-establishment of native plants.

Life Spans.

annuals: Annual plants germinate, flower, and die in one year.

biennials: Plants that take two years to grow from seed to become fruit in their life cycles.

perennials: Perennials are plants that survive for more than two growing seasons.

monocarpic perennial: plants those that flower, set seeds, and then die.

I took the picture for annuals and biennials plant because of low battery to take a picture for carrot was from an internet website.

annuals plant: morning glory, Ipomoea

biennials plant, carrot plant, Daucus carota subsp. sativus

Lime-loving plants: The first one is redbud and the second one is red oak. According to  Jane Forsyth, Both of these two species are living in limestone-based soil and basic soil. leaf arrangement and shape are key to identify them.

Monocots and (eu)dicots: Sorry not enough time to find plants for this section. It was a long trip from the Battelle Darby Creek Metro Park and Clear Creek Metro Park.


Plant-animal interactions (seed dispersal): I found many berry trees at the metro parks. However, I could not took the picture of this section due to low battery in my phone. So, I bring the picture from other website. Birds or other animals eat this berry and move. They dispersal the seed with their feces at the new place to grow the berry trees. The second one is apple tree. Although I could not find any apple trees at the park, I put this picture because they have the same strategy to disperse their seed. Including human, animal eat the fruits with seeds and then they move and release the seed from GI tract.



Two Mosses: I found these two mosses at the Battelle Darby Creek Metro Park and Clear Creek Metro Park. They are living in moist and shaded place at the Park. I found on the ground for the first picture of moss and I found the second moss on rock. I think each species is  Anomodon rostratus (1st one)Tortula obtusifolia (2nd one). The first one has a hair point and the second one usually founded on limestone. I’m not sure the rock was limestone, but I also found redbud and red oak at the same place: Battelle Darby Creek Metro Park. So, I infer that this stone may be a part of limestone.

Two Ferns: Here is two ferns from Clear Creek Metro Park. The first one and the second one has a pinnate type of frond. However, the second on have an alternate frond formation and the first one has opposite frond formation. Two ferns are both are bipinnate type in dissction type. As I found the first picture of fern, the upper part of fern has been dry up and it shows extremely curly in shape. The first one is A. pycnocarpon and the second one is P. acrostichoides

Threats to Trees: These two pictures are threats to trees. The first one is the fungal impact on trees and the second one is impacted by insects.  Not all fungi growing on the tree is harmful to the tree, but some do affect on tree or shrub. the fungi growing on trees can be treated by using the copper-sulfate spray. However, this treatment is limited in spring and early autumn because there is no effect with this treatment in cool weather.  Secondly, the picture is related to damage in leaves by insects because I could not find damage in stem, roots, or twig at the site.  Boring insects can impact on tree’s health by causing damage in the stem, roots, or twigs of the tree. The solution for insects is the chemical method. There is a lot of chemical methods to prevent the attacking from insects. DDT is the most typical chemical pesticides for defending.

Shrubbery: Unfortunately, I could not find new one more shrubs at the two metro parks. So, I attached the same picture that I submitted in the last assignment. The first one is maple and the second one is multiflora rose. Maple has lobed round and symmetrical and the margin is serrate. The multiflora rose has five petals.